NOTE: The references listed are presented to assist individuals in preparing for SPEC. Study of these references will not guarantee that an individual will pass the NBCE examinations. Moreover, these lists are not comprehensive and do not imply that references that are not on this list are inappropriate or of lesser value or quality than references that are included.
Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Flynn, J.A., Solomon, B.S., Stewart, R.W. (2023). Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination (10th ed.). Edinburgh; Elsevier.
Bergman, T. F., & Peterson, D. H. (2011). Chiropractic Technique: Principles and Procedures (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Bickley, L. S. (2021). Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (13th ed.). Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer.
Cipriano, J. J. (2010). Photographic Manual of Regional Orthopaedic and Neurological Tests (5th ed.). Philadelphia; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cox, J. M. (2011). Low Back Pain: Mechanism, Diagnosis and Treatment (7th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Evans, R.C. (2009). Illustrated Orthopedic Physical Assessment (3rd ed.). St. Louis; Mosby.
Giangarra, C.E., & Manske, R.C. (2018). Clinical Orthopedic Rehabilitation: A Team Approach (4th ed.). Philadelphia; Mosby.
Haldeman, S. (Ed.). (2005). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). New York; McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hoppenfeld, S. (2014). Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities. Edinburgh; Pearson International.
Hoppenfield, J.D., Hoppenfeld, S. (2018). Orthopaedic Neurology: A Diagnostic Guide to Neurologic Levels. (2nd ed.). Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer.
Magee, D. J. (2021). Orthopedic Physical Assessment (7th ed.). Philadelphia; Elsevier.
Marchiori, D. M. (2014). Clinical Imaging: With Skeletal, Chest and Abdomen Pattern Differentials (3rd ed.). St. Louis; Mosby.
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F.I., & Katch, V. L. (2023). Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance (9th ed.). Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer.
Papadakis, M.A., McPhee, S.J., & Rabow, M.W. (2023). Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2023. (62nd ed.) New York; McGraw-Hill Medical.
Scott, R. W. (2013). Legal, Ethical, and Practical Aspects of Patient Care Documentation (4th ed.). Sudbury; Jones & Bartlett.
Starkey, C. (2013). Therapeutic Modalities (4th ed.). Philadelphia; F.A. Davis Company.
Souza, T. A. (2016). Differential Diagnosis and Management for the Chiropractor: Protocols and Algorithms (5th ed.). Sudbury; Jones and Bartlett.
Yochum, T. R., & Rowe, L. J. (2005). Essentials of Skeletal Radiology (Vols. 1-2) (3rd ed.). Baltimore; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.